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Treatment with Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine

Every month, new research on the use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) appears in the literature. The first hurdle is being able to reprogram adult human cells without using cancer-causing agents. To introduce the reprogramming genes into cells, the first reprogramming method used a viral delivery system. A virus, on the other hand, can insert itself into the genome of a cell, potentially causing serious unintended consequences such as cancer. Do you want to learn more? Visit QC Kinetix (Austin)

It’s also necessary to fine-tune the reprogramming factors. Oct-4, c-Myc, Sox2, and Klf4 genes made up the first group. The oncogenic property of c-Myc is that it can cause a cell to become cancerous when it is expressed. c-Myc was discovered in the late 1970s, and its expression plays a significant role in the development of breast cancer, as well as in the majority of human malignancies.

Alternatives to c-Myc reprogramming had to be found before these cells could be used safely in humans. Finding alternatives to using any gene for reprogramming would be the ideal scenario. Inserting new genes into a cell may cause mutations, disrupt other normal genetic processes, and have other negative consequences. As cells and tissues introduced into a patient divide and replicate, such negative outcomes would increase in number and severity.

The field is rapidly progressing. Small molecules have been successfully investigated as reprogramming factors by a number of research teams. Very short nucleotide segments (nucleotides are the building blocks of the genetic code), peptides (amino acid sequences), and short-chain sugars are examples of small molecules. Dr. Hongyan Zhou’s team at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California, recently used direct delivery of a set of reprogramming small molecules to generate induced pluripotent stem cells. This pioneering research establishes a new method for producing safer cells for use in care and transplantation.

Initial research is underway to use iPS cells to treat a variety of severe and life-threatening diseases. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson’s disease, sickle cell anaemia, thalassemia, muscular dystrophy, and diabetes have all seen significant preliminary research.

Researchers, for example, were able to generate large numbers of iPS cells from skin cells taken from an 82-year-old woman with ALS. These cells could be programmed to become motor neurons, which could then be used to replace diseased nerve cells in the spinal cord of a patient. This study shows that cells taken from an elderly patient can produce enough induced pluripotent cells. Treatments for other diseases that affect the elderly could be developed using iPS cells.

Induced pluripotent stem cells derived from the mice’s own cells were used to reverse sickle cell anaemia. Humanized sickle cell anaemia mouse models provided somatic cells. The cells were reprogrammed to become induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPS cells. The genetic flaw in the pluripotent cells was corrected before they were differentiated into blood cell precursors. The original mice were then transplanted with normal blood-forming cells, and they recovered from sickle cell anaemia.